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Hartung, Barbara, and Diane L. Borden | Special Collections & University Archives

Name: Hartung, Barbara, and Diane L. Borden

Historical Note:

The 19th-Century Newspaper Collection was used as a teaching tool by two professors of communications at San Diego State University in their respective classes:  Barbara Hartung, Ph.D., now professor emerita, and Diane L. Borden, Ph.D.  Upon her retirement from teaching, Hartung transferred the collection to Borden.  At the time of donation, Borden was serving as executive assistant to President Stephen L. Weber.

Each of the newspapers included in this collection was established on the East Coast during the late 18th or early 19th centuries.  The "Boston Weekly Messenger" (1811-1861) was devoted to moral and entertaining literature, science, and the fine arts.  The "Christian Herald" was a religious periodical that advocated religious freedom and announced the meetings and conferences of different faiths in New England.  Some of its contents included biographies, poetry, anecdotes, missionary efforts, records of conversions and revivals.

The "Connecticut Courant" (1764-1914) was established in Hartford in 1764 by Thomas Green and was the third newspaper published in the colony.  Following the British occupation of New York in 1776, it became the voice for the American Revolution.  In 1778, its circulation was 8,000 while many colonial papers had only a few hundred subscribers.  The "Connecticut Mirror" (1809-1832) was founded in 1809 by Charles Hosmer and was devoted to federal politics and the states’ business interests.  Hosmer sold the newspaper to Benjamin Hamlen in 1816.  The Mirror had numerous editors through the years; in 1832, it merged with "American Mercury" and continued as such.

Originally established as "The Freeman’s Journal and Philadelphia Daily Advertiser" by William McCorkle in 1804, the paper was renamed "The Freeman’s Journal and Philadelphia Mercantile Advertiser" in 1808.  During its run, James Elliott joined McCorkle as editor.  The paper ceased publication in 1825.  "The Massachusetts Spy" (1770-1904) was founded by Isaiah Thomas.  Initially, the periodical was open to all political parties but later became supportive of the American Revolution.  "Worcester Magazine" was published as a substitute for the Spy when the newspaper was suspended because of its strong patriotic language.  The "National Intelligencer" (1800-1869) was established by Samuel Harrison Smith when the federal government was removed from Philadelphia to Washington; it was the official reporter of Thomas Jefferson’s administration.  The newspaper became the first recognized government organ in the United States.  In 1813, it merged with "Washington Express" to become the "Daily National Intelligencer." The newspaper had full coverage of Congressional actions and debates, governmental notices, proclamations and advertisements.

Established in 1820 in Philadelphia by William Fry, the "National Gazette and Literary Register" was published as a semiweekly newspaper for two years.  It appeared tri-weekly from late 1822 until 1841, when it became known, for a brief time, as simply the "National Gazette."  In 1842, the paper was renamed the "Philadelphia Inquirer and National Gazette" as the result of a merger.  "New-England Galaxy" was founded by Joseph T. Buckingham.  It gave special attention to the Boston Theater and contained biographies, literature, Masonic and agricultural news, and political material.  The "American Patriot" was established by William Hoit in 1808.  In 1809, the periodical was sold to Isaac Hill and became the "New-Hampshire Patriot" (1809-1830).  The Patriot was a pro-Democratic newspaper, which became the "New-Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette" on February 2, 1819.  The New-Hampshire Statesman and Concord Register was established in 1825, the result of a merger between the merger of two existing newspapers; it continued publication until 1831, when it was re-titled the "New-Hampshire Statesman and State Journal."  By the late 1840s, the newspaper had become simply the "New Hampshire Statesman."

The "New York Herald" (1835-1924) was founded in 1835 by James Gordon Bennett.  During the Civil War, the Herald sent correspondents to cover the war.  Bennett published the newspaper until his death in 1922, and the newspaper then merged with the "New York Tribune."  Poets George Pope Morris and Samuel Woodworth established the "New York Mirror" (1823-1842) in 1823.  The periodical became a fashionable journal of New York society.  The Mirror contained literary reviews; notes on music; biographies; a weekly record of New York theater, dramatic and art criticism; and it gave attention to women’s interests.  A semi-weekly, the "New York Spectator" was published in New York City from 1804 to 1867. 

The "Pennsylvania Telegraph" began publication in 1831 under the editorial leadership of Theodore Fenn.  It primarily appeared weekly, semiweekly during the state’s legislative sessions. The newspaper was a continuation of the "Statesman, and Anti-Masonic Republican," published by John McCord from 1828 to 1831.  Beginning in 1835, Fenn also published a daily edition known as the "Daily Pennsylvania Telegraph."  As the result of a merger, the paper was published as the "Telegraph and Intelligencer" from 1839 to mid-1840 by R.S. Elliott.  In early July 1840, it once again became the "Pennsylvania Telegraph" and was published by Fenn and Wallace until late 1853.  David Newhall, founder of the "Political Observatory" was a selectman—a member of the board of officials—in Walpole, New Hampshire, and a Thomas Jefferson supporter.  He published the newspaper from 1803 to 1809.  "The Union," a tri-weekly newspaper published in Washington, DC, was a political organ of the administration of President James K. Polk, from 1845 to 1849.  Thomas Ritchie, a spokesman for the Southern Democratic party and long-time editor of the Richmond Enquirer, served as its editor.

Note Author: Viktoria Nikolova

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